Bernhart, Amsterdam , p. Some of the illuminated manuscripts discussed are English or German – but all of the examples of stained glass and portal sculpture are in France. Not only does this interpretation fit better with the details of the Descriptio , it also suits one of the broader moral implications both of that text and of the window, namely that a king should pay more heed to spiritual riches than to financial ones. The rhetoric of the frame: Mary Carruthers has written extensively about such images and their roles both as mnemotechic devices and also as tools for [57] expressing concepts. Roland, separated from his companions, slays Marsile which some authors unconvincingly argue is the subject of panels 16 and possibly 17 but is greatly outnumbered and is mortally wounded. Spain has fallen back into the hands of the Muslims and their allies.

Unfortunately this is a rather selective reading of the text, as the longer quotation given above makes clear. Grape, The Bayeux Tapestry: In the same way, the depiction of highly distinctive events, the quirky depiction of familiar ones, or the use of metalepsis and other paradoxical devices see chapter 6 all contribute to viewer engagement and hence to the narrativity of the image. Instead the reliquaries are displayed in niches on a single level, beneath a domed roof resting on colonnettes just visible in the blue glass between the reliquaries – this detail is much clearer in an enlarged and slightly overexposed photograph – see Fig. Two other objections that have been raised to this interpretation are that a the Saracen in these panels is not obviously a giant, and b he wears a crown over his helmet.

The adventure chronotope is thus characterized by a technical, abstract connection between space and timeby the reversibility of moments in a temporal sequence, and by their interchangeaility in space. However when one views that window in most lighting conditions, the dominant geometric pattern is determined by the roundels that fill alternating squares, together with the vesica pisca form housing the Sedes sapientia at the top see Fig.

Wills, Cambridgepp.

Although it has not been as widely accepted as the implied author, the concept of the implied reader remains useful, particularly thesjs one considers the issues of indeterminacy and gap-filling. Just as the implied transition from fabula to discourse involves decisions about relative pacing or anisochrony amount of discourse per hypothetical unit of fabula-time – see section 2.


Charlemagne then travels to the Levant and does indeed conquer the Holy Land. Artists responded to this demand by finding new ways of turning stories into images – and narrative art developed a formal complexity unmatched by later periods.

And he took the wood for the holocaust, and laid it upon Isaac his son: A single fabula may be expressed in whattling number of discourses corresponding to different ways of telling the same underlying story.

According to Pseudo-TurpinBaldwin is unable to find any and instead gallops off to tell Charlemagne what has happened. Schapiro, ‘On some problems in the semiotics of visual art: Above the altar is the diminutive figure of an angel also nimbed, wings not shownwho gestures with his right hand index finger raised and with his left hand lowers a scroll into the waiting hands of the cleric, who gazes up at him.

Stuart Whatling PhD Thesis – Bibliography

This can then lead to a tendency to interpret visual features according to what one is expecting to see, based on that particular text, rather than what is actually there. Verbal texts are necessarily single-threaded since words are arranged in fixed sequences that can only tell one plot-line at a time.

The great Gothic cathedrals were built, sculpted, glazed and equipped, each offering myriad spaces for the display of visual narratives. A study of memory in medieval culture 2nd EdCambridge This mirror is the memory of good men, and the history of their blessed lives; the reading of the Scriptures; the laws given by God. This argument is problematic theais.

Art historians also tell stories, or at least we try. Others have frames thrust upon them.

stuart whatling phd thesis

The Norwich roof bosses example cited was presented in M. An Approach to a Theory of SymbolsIndianapolis Information the writer omits, the reader supplies via an appropriate cognitive schema. However even if this were valid for panel 20, it would scarcely explain the curious distribution of nimbi in the next panel. The tall, narrow lancet [65] forms of stained glass windows apply similar constraints but in the vertical axis.


Most likely therefore we are looking at a fictive stuuart setting which is meant to resemble Chartres and thus help re-localise the story for the viewer but to represent Aachen.

10) Conclusions

Thus when reading a French thirteenth century window like the one in Fig 3. A man holding his head in his hands is commonly recognised as an expression of grief or pain most cultures have this cognitive frame – but when the head in question is no longer attached to a neck, the image is one which does not fit whattling of the frames available to those viewers unfamiliar with medieval hagiography.

Images however interrogate us, demanding a deeper search of our stock of cognitive frames and scripts as we try to make sense of them – and in doing so, flagging up the intertextual connections that are the basis of exegesis. For example the iconic, hieratic figures of saints that stand as jamb statues in early Gothic portals, or the angels and ancestors of Christ that appear in the [56] archivolts.

3) Ontological and narratological implications of frames

In the event, this thesis has turned out to be at once much less and rather more than I had originally intended. According to the Descriptioas well as the Crown of Thorns, the relics which Charlemagne brought home from Constantinople included a piece of the True Cross for which one would expect a cross-shaped reliquaryvarious fabric relics and one of the nails from the Crucifixion.

stuart whatling phd thesis

Before embarking on the fragmenting of the frame it is worth reflecting that most of its apparently divergent meanings are fundamentally related. Various negative features, including Semitic facial types, partial undress, inelegant posture etc. This is a nonsense which overlooks the fact that Charlemagne also wears an identical garment in panels 05 and