The magnitude of the moduli is a qualitative indication of the system structure. Mucoadhesive ocular insert based on thiolated poly acrylic acid: Tetheres structures and site-specific surfaces. Br J Clin Pharmacol. Various clinical trials of contraceptive gels are also ongoing, with a view to determine their effectiveness. The sacs are introduced into tubes containing the system under analysis at known concentrations, stirred, incubated and then removed.
Tzachev[ 96 ] has compared a mucoadhesive solution formulation of xylometazoline with commercially available decongestatnt solution in 20 human subjects with perennial allergic rhinitis. In addition, films may circumvent the problem of the relatively short residence time of oral gels. Bacterial invasins are proteins from the membrane of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis that stimulate fagocytosis at cellular membrane through linkage with integrin receptors Chowdary, Rao, ; Lehr, ; Woodley, By binding functional groups within polymer chains, hydrogels can be made more sensitive to surrounding environmental conditions like temperature, moisture, pH, electrical fields and ionic forces Peppas, Huang, Therefore, several conventional drug delivery systems already in use can become bioadhesive after redesign by including bioadhesive substances in their formulation.
Buccal administration of human insulin in streptozocin-diabetic rats. A turnover of the mucus layer occurs in approximately 15—20 h. Electronic Medicines Compendium [Last scited on Aug 16].
Falling Liquid Film Method Nielsen, Mucoadehsive and Hansen used a method proposed by Rango Rao and Buri in which the chosen mucous membrane is placed in a stainless steel cylindrical tube, which has been longitudinally cut.
Super-hydration of the system can lead to build up of mucilage without adhesion. Solid micro- and nano-particulate systems based on chitosan and derivatives have been the focus of several studies Bravo-Osuna et al.
Recently, there has been hhesis growing interest in alternative delivery system designs. Xystem this review, the aim is to provide detailed understanding of mucoadhesion, bioadhesion of polymer, and techniques for the determination of mucoadhesion; finally most common routes of mucoadhesive administration will be presented along with examples of formulation studied.
Vaginal gels are semisolid polymeric matrices comprising small amounts of solid, dispersed in relatively large amounts of liquid and have been used in systems for microbicides, contraceptives, labor inducers, and other substances. After the experiment, the magnetic current is converted into force and the computer calculates the parameters of adhesion.
De la Fuente[ 98 ] investigated the efficacy and mechanism of action of a bioadhesive DNA nanocarrier made of hyaluronan HA and chitosan CSspecifically designed for topical ophthalmic gene therapy. Bioadhesive intraoral release systems: Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems in the past have been formulated as powders, compacts, sprays, semisolids, or films. Drug delivery through the oral mucosa has gained significant attention due to its convenient accessibility.
They are able to non-covalently bind to glycosilated components of the cellular membrane but not of the eelivery, and adhesion can therefore be called cytoadhesion. Tetheres structures and site-specific surfaces.
Theophylline, multiple polymers[ 55 ].
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems
Comparison of the mucoadhesive properties of varios polymers. Techniques utilizing gut sac of rats The everted gut sac technique is an example of an ex vivo method.
Dgug therapy of vulval neoplasias and dysplasias: Effect of film hydration on cutaneous adherence in wet environments. Mucoadhesive-based topical and local systems have shown enhanced bioavailability.
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems
This involves the use of a microtensiometer and a microforce balance Figure 10 and is specific, yielding both contact angle and surface tension. Thesls, PVP[ 59 ]. An ideal polymer for a bioadhesive drug delivery system should have the following characteristics;[ 913 ]. The use of mucoadhesive polymers in ocular drug delivery.
Characterization of chitosan hydrochloride–mucin rheological interaction: This process leads to the mixture of formulation and mucus and can thus increase contact time with the mucous membrane. Correlation of two bioadhesion assays: Bioadhesive retentive system involves the use of bioadhesive polymers, which can adhere to the epithelial drig in the GIT. Using this technique, it is possible to perform a previous evaluation of the material’s adhesive capacity, evidencing mucoadhesion properties Bruschi, Increase in compression force resulted in a decreased in vitro and in vivo drug release while giving the best in vivo mucoadhesive and hydration time.
Oralin, a novel liquid aerosol formulation Generex Biotechnologyhas been developed and it is now in clinical phase II trials. Subsequently, in mkcoadhesive case of particulate systems, the amount remaining on the mucous membrane can be counted with the aid of a coulter counter Chowdary, Rao, It has been used since to study intestinal transport. The mucous membrane is placed in a small mobile chamber with both pH and physiological temperature controlled.