A go-signal followed after a delay of ms. Note that because saccade target distances were physically equivalent in the current experiment, effects of the illusion on saccade programming are evident here as a difference in movement amplitude for wings-in and wings-out targets. The role of location probability in the programming of saccades: It was assumed that the wings-in figure is near to the observer, like the protruding corner of a building, while the wings-out figure is supposed to be further away. For methodical details on how the effects are computed, see Figure 3 and the description in the Results section. Mean amplitudes of the saccades along the MFs shown on white background in comparison with the mean actual sizes of these MFs yellow background.

You can manage this and all other alerts in My Account. The internal codes of the perceptual system and the action system are of considerable interest for current research in psychology and neuroscience. Manipulations of signal contrast and of location probability, in other words, were effective. The effects of the illusion on reflexive saccades are not subject to endogenous control, nor are they modulated by the strength of an exogenous target signal. Current Biology , 5, —

Various reasons may explain this discrepancy. No evidence for a dissociation between perception and action. Stimulus parameters were chosen so that saccade targets within M-L figures appeared to be equidistant from the movement launch point, when in reality one target was 1. In Experiment 1 Perceptual adjustments we measured the perceptual effect and obtained sizes for perceptually adjusted figures i.

Journal literathre Vision3, The conclusion that saccades toward a visible stimulus are resistant to litrrature, however, is challenged by data from an alternative line of research.


American Journal of Psychology9, — Third, the go-signal was no longer equiprobable on both sides of the display. These findings are consistent with a common representation model in which the frame mkller reference induced by task demands determines what effect an illusion will have on a response, independent of the response mode.

Literature review on muller lyer illusion

The action effects were computed analogous to the perceptual effects in Experiment 1i. Hence, it remains open if the perceptual and action effects would have differed if a correction by the slopes had been carried out. As noted, voluntary latencies were considerably longer than reflexive latencies. A mismatch of attentional demands cannot explain the perception-action dissociation.

For methodical details on how the effects are computed, see Figure 3 and the description in the Results section. This suggests that in the current reflexive saccade task, contrast of the go-signal should do little to modulate the effects of the M-L illusion. The weak separate representation model likewise posits that separate spatial representations exist in the brain, but allows for crosstalk, modulated by task demands, to occur between them. Data from these trials were also excluded from the analyses reported below.

This was interpreted as evidence for a center of gravity effect. Conclusions from 33 independent studies. A change in amplitude indicates a change of contractions of the same eye muscles, whereas a deviation in direction indicates a change of the muscular activation pattern. Published in Current psychology letters13, Vol.

Literature review on muller lyer illusion

Perceptual effects Experiment 1blue bars and action effects see Experiment 2red bars. We measured the perceptual adjustment method and the action effects amplitudes of saccades of the illusion. This suggests that anticipatory movement planning might exacerbate the effects of the illusion on reflexive saccades.


The shaft lengths of the SCA figures were always 4 cm or 6 cm. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience6, — The usual range of perceptual effects has been reported by Bruno and Franz In voluntary saccade conditions, observers made eye movements toward the end of the stimulus figure specified by a spoken go-signal.

literature review on muller lyer illusion

While the perceptual measures yielded slopes close to 1. Experiment 1 revealed that both reflexive and voluntary saccades are susceptible to the M-L illusion, but to different degrees; while reflexive saccades are modestly affected, voluntary saccades show effects similar to those of subjective judgments.

The role of location probability in the programming of saccades: Consistent with a weak separate representation model, some findings suggest that illusion affects some aspects of visually guided movement e.

Human Perception and Performance27, — However, previous studies have generally not distinguished between effects of illusory percepts on reflexive saccades, programmed automatically in response to an external visual signal, and voluntary saccades, programmed purposively to a location where no signal has occurred.

It seems that the action system treated the flankers as obstacles despite the fact that they were two-dimensional. On the basis of self-reports, i,lusion had no visual or somaesthetic disorders.

literature review on muller lyer illusion