Turner held that the American character was decisively shaped by conditions on the frontier, in particular the abundance of free land, the settling of which engendered such traits as self-reliance, individualism , inventiveness, restless energy, mobility, materialism, and optimism. All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October It came out of the American forest, and it gained new strength each time it touched a new frontier,” said Turner. Essays and Miscellany First ed. Wyman and Clifton B.
The tensions between small churches as a result of this fight, Turner states, exist today because of the religious attempt to master the West and those effects are worth further study. Turner moved to the Huntington Library in San Marino, California , where he remained as senior research associate until his death. The mainstream of the profession has long since discarded Turner’s assumption that the frontier is the key to American history as a whole; they point instead to the critical influence of such factors as slavery and the Civil War, immigration, and the development of industrial capitalism. A historical perspective,” Journal of the West Oct 34 4 pp. Some have long disputed the very idea of a frontier of “free land. Of course it was not viewed as myth by individuals at the time, and is still pulsing through the American conscious, though weakened, today. On a more analytic level, an increasing number of Western historians have found the very concept of a frontier dubious, because it applies to too many disparate places and times to be useful.
Other historians, who wanted to focus scholarship on minorities, especially Native Americans and Hispanics, started in the s to trederick the frontier thesis because it did not attempt to explain the evolution of those groups.
Individualism was king on the frontier. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: It came out of the American forest, and it gained new strength each time it touched a new frontier. More than a century after he first delivered his frontier thesis, historians still hotly debate Turner’s ideas and approach.
Turner taught at the University of Wisconsin untilwhen he accepted an appointment to a distinguished chair of history at Harvard University. Many such critics have sought to replace the idea of a moving frontier with the idea of the West as a distinctive region, much like the American South. Awarded his doctorate inhe was one of the first historians professionally trained in the United States rather than Europe. Turner’s emphasis on the importance of the frontier in shaping American character influenced the interpretation found in thousands of scholarly histories.
Comps Notes: Frederick Jackson Turner’s “The Significance of the Frontier in American History”
Kolb and Hoddeson argue that during the heyday of Kennedy’s “New Frontier,” the physicists who built the Fermi Labs explicitly sought to recapture the excitement of the old frontier. Pearl Harbor attack, December 7,surprise aerial attack on the U.
Philosophy of historythe study either of the historical process and its development or of the methods used by historians to understand their material. Moreover, as the 19th century wore on, the role of the federal government and large corporations grew increasingly important.
Frederick Jackson Turner “The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward explain American development. Addresses and Opinions hhesis Franklin Delano Roosevelt p.
Frederick Jackson Turner, The Frontier Thesis ()
This view dominated religious historiography for decades. Previous Post Ice, Wolves, Sheet. Rebelling against this view, Turner argued instead that Europeans had been transformed by the process of settling the American continent and that what was unique about the United States was its frontier history. No known restrictions on publication. If we can reach and cross this frontier, our generations will fronter furnished a significant milestone in human history.
He asked why the Turnerian American character was limited to English settlements in the New World, and why the frontier did not produce that same character among Native Americans and Spaniards. You are commenting using your WordPress. Western historians who still adhere roughly to Turner’s approach accuse their opponents of turbers a simple-minded political correctness for good scholarship in their quest to recount only the doom and gloom of the Western past.
Udall, Ida Hunt and David King. They emphasized the jacson of individualism, empiricism, simplicity, equality, courage, discovery, independence, and naturalism in the service of democratic access, human rights, ecological balance, and the resolution of yurners, economic, and political issues. He won wide acclaim among historians and intellectuals. The tensions between small churches as a result of this fight, Turner states, exist today because of the religious attempt to master the West and those effects are worth further study.
Frontier Thesis – Wikipedia
The peculiarity of American institutions is, the frotnier that tueners have been compelled to adapt themselves to the changes of an expanding people to the changes involved in crossing a continent, in winning a wilderness, and in developing at each area of this progress out of the primitive economic and political conditions of the frontier into the complexity of city life.
Kennedy in the early s explicitly called upon the ideas of the frontier.
Individuals, forced to rely on their own wits and strength, he believed, were simply too scornful of rank to be amenable to the exercise of centralized political power. Subsequent critics, historians, and politicians have suggested that other ‘frontiers,’ such as scientific innovation, could serve similar functions in American development. Behind institutions, behind constitutional forms and modifications, lie the vital forces that call these organs into life and shape them to meet changing conditions.
For Turner, the deeper significance of the frontier lay in the effects of this social recapitulation on the American character. Whereas Turner saw the development of American character occur just behind the frontier line, as the colonists tamed and tilled the land, Roosevelt saw it form in battles just beyond the frontier line.
Turner set up an evolutionary model he had studied evolution with a leading geologist, Thomas Chrowder Chamberlinusing the time dimension of American history, and the geographical space of the land that became the United States. Corporate investors headquartered in New York laid the railroads; government troops defeated Indian nations who refused to get out of the way of manifest destiny; even the cowboys, enshrined in popular mythology as rugged loners, were generally low-level employees of sometimes foreign-owned cattle corporations.
It was popular among New Dealers—Franklin Roosevelt and his top aides  thought in terms of finding new frontiers.